Can dogs take human supplements?

 

Grocery stores and pharmacies are stocked with row upon row of human vitamins. With so many options for us, it is completely logical that we wonder if our pets might benefit from some of these vitamins, too.

 

But do dogs actually need vitamins? Are there any risks associated with dog vitamins? What vitamins should you give your dog? Here are some answers.

 

What Are Vitamins?

 

Vitamins are organic compounds that are necessary to sustain life. Most are found naturally in food. Animals’ bodies need vitamins for growth and maintenance.

 

You are probably familiar with most of the vitamins human and animal bodies need:

 

Vitamin A

B vitamins (biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12)

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Choline

 

Dogs need these vitamins, too, although it is very important that we realize they may need them in different amounts than we do before we go popping them supplements for pets.

 

Vitamin A for Dogs

 

Vitamin A, in case you’ve ever wondered, is the vitamin in carrots that is responsible for that good vision your parents promised you. This fat-soluble vitamin is also responsible for growth, fetal development, immune function, and cell function.

 

B Vitamins for Dogs

 

The B vitamins are a group of important vitamins that play a role in your dog’s health.

 

Thiamine helps regulate energy and carbohydrate metabolism, and activates ion channels in neural tissue.

Riboflavin, B12, and niacin help facilitate enzyme function.

Vitamin B6 is especially vital. This vitamin is responsible for glucose generation, red blood cell and nervous system function, hormone regulation, immune response, niacin synthesis, and gene activation.

Pantothenic acid helps with energy metabolism.

Folic acid plays a role in amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and in mitochondrial protein synthesis.

 

Vitamin C for Dogs

 

Vitamin C is an important antioxidant. It scavenges potentially harmful free radicals in the body and can help reduce inflammation and cognitive aging. Dogs can actually synthesize vitamin C on their own in their livers, but in some cases supplementation may offer health benefits.

 

Vitamin D for Dogs

 

Vitamin D, or the “sunshine vitamin,” allows your dog’s body to balance minerals like phosphorous and calcium for healthy bone growth. Without it, your dog would not be able to develop properly or maintain healthy muscles and bones.

 

 

Laws on Online Gambling – What Are They?

The current laws on online gambling vary a great deal depending on whereabouts in the world you are. In the US, the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA) was passed in 2006, but unsurprisingly, this has not stopped millions of Americans enjoying the many delights of gambling online.

Although the laws on online gambling in the US restrict the transfer of money directly from คาสิโนออนไลน์  US bank accounts to online casino sites, the casinos have found ways around the problem. Most casinos online operate an e-wallet system whereby money is transferred from a bank account or credit card into an e-wallet, and from there it can be spent in the online casino.

So despite the rules and regulations, there are always ways to beat the system for those who look hard enough. However, many experts believe that the laws on online gambling in the US could well change in the near future as the US government begins to wake up to the realisation there is a great deal of lucrative tax revenue to be earned if gambling online is legalized in the US. Whilst Congress might have a moral objection to online gambling, in the current economic climate an extra few $billion in the government’s purse would hardly be unwelcome.

But if the laws on online gambling in the US are too restrictive for you, try the Caribbean-gambling is legal in Antigua and many of the big online casinos operate out of this tiny Caribbean country. Gambling online in casinos is also legal in most of the EU and some provinces in Canada.

 

Gambling Demographics in New Zealand

New Zealand has one of the biggest gambling populations in the world. Despite being a small country with only 4.4 million inhabitants, New Zealand’s residents spend billions of dollars on gambling every year. Playing land-based casino games is particularly popular, but online gambling has increased in popularity over the years.

Currently, New Zealand’s gambling laws prohibit online gambling. Unlike many countries, the laws do not punish players for taking part in internet gambling activities; instead, online casino and online poker operators who provide their services to New Zealand residents are prosecuted for doing so. The advertisement of online casinos and online gambling brands is also prohibited in New Zealand. Fortunately, since the legislation has been passed, no operators have been reprimanded.

There are only two operators that are allowed to offer their services to New Zealand residents: TabCorp and the New Zealand Lottery Commission. TabCorp is one of the biggest land-based gambling operators in the country and has had a monopoly on the internet gaming market for years. The company’s online gambling website has earned billions of dollars over the course of the past five years and shows no signs of slowing down. In 2011, TabCorp’s online services brought in over $700 million in revenue. Following an incredibly successful foray into the online gaming world, the operator now has its eyes on the mobile gambling market.

The New Zealand Lottery Commission has just launched its own online gambling service, allowing customers to purchase their lottery tickets online. Players register to the site as they would at any other online casino, and they can fund their accounts using the credit cards or bank accounts. There is a $150/week or $300/month spending limit at the NZLC’s website, and players can choose lower limits if they wish. The New Zealand Lottery  ufabet  Commission also offers online bingo and keno.

Although there are strict rules dictating which companies may and may not offer online casino

In New Zealand, gambling is considered an economically-significant industry. Residents spend over $1 billion on gambling activities each year, marking its popularity in the country. The demographics reached by gambling operators in New Zealand are wide-ranging, as both men and women and individuals belonging to varying age groups take part in gambling activities.

According to studies carried out by Statistics New Zealand, over 90% of residents over the age of 18 participated in gambling activities at least once in their lives. Over 80% admit to gambling at least once a year. 85% of New Zealanders play the local lottery on a regular basis while 77% choose to take part in other forms of raffles. Additionally, instant lottery games and electronic gaming machines are played by over half of New Zealand residents.

Gambling preferences seem to vary among age groups. Residents aged 25-34 are the most likely to take part in gambling activities while younger New Zealanders, aged 18-24, are less likely to gamble. Of the younger population, those that do gamble mostly take part in Instant Kiwi games and informal monetary wagers with friends. Residents aged 25-34 are most likely to play poker machines and casino games. Middle-aged and senior residents are the most likely to play the lottery.

Additionally, gambling behaviour differs between genders. Gambling was previously an activity dominated by males, but recent years have seen more and more women getting involved. In a study conducted in 1991, 699 100 men gambled, compared to about 349 500 women. In recent years, however, things have evened out with about half a million men and women both taking part in land-based gambling games and online casino activities.

More women than men play the lottery, bingo and Instant Kiwi games. 80% of women compared to 70% of men play the lottery, 23% of women compared to 15% of men play bingo and 53% of women compared to 43% of men play Instant Kiwi games. However, men outnumber women when it comes to sports betting as 12% of males compared to 5% of women wager on sports. An equal portion of men and women take part in poker machines (18% each) and casino games (15% each).

Rates of problem gambling also vary among demographics. 34% of women are suspected to be problem gamblers, compared to 46% of men. Also, residents over the age of 40 are considered to be the most likely to develop unhealthy gambling habits, as 43% of players aged 40-49 are potential problem gamblers. it seems that New Zealand’s government may be looking into the option of regulating offshore gambling websites. After witnessing the huge growth of offshore gambling websites and success that other countries have had in regulating the market, the government seems ready to follow suit. Earlier this year, the Inquiry into Interactive and Online Gambling was launched. The review may lead to an online gambling reform, which would see the legalization and regulation of offshore gambling in New Zealand and Australia.

 

General Information about Viagra / Generic Viagra?

VIAGRA

What is Viagra?

Viagra is an anti-impotence drug manufactured by Pfizer with an active ingredient sildenafile citrate for treatment of male impotence. Sildenafile citrate relaxes the muscles and increases the blood flow to particular areas of the body. The intake of Viagra increases the ability to achieve and sustain erection on being sexually stimulated. Men taking Viagra have reported an amplified sex drive, increased stamina, and quicker recharge. Viagra works together with sexual stimulation to help achieve maximum sexual satisfaction. However, Viagra does not guarantee protection from getting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and Hepatitis.

How Viagra works?

Viagra enables many men with ED to respond to sexual stimulation. When a man is sexually aroused, the arteries in the penis relax and widen, allowing more blood to flow into the penis. As the arteries in the penis expand and harden, the veins that normally carry blood away from the penis become compressed, restricting the blood flow out of the penis. With more blood flowing in and less flowing out, the penis enlarges, resulting in an erection. It is to be noted that Viagra is not a hormone or aphrodisiac, it works only when a man is sexually stimulated.

Viagra Dosage

Viagra is available in the form of tablet and is meant to be taken orally. Ideally it is to be taken almost an hour before the sexual activity. However, Viagra can be taken anytime from 4 hours to 30 minutes before sexual activity. It takes 30 – 45 minutes for showing Viagra’s effect and this effect lasts for almost four hours. If you take Viagra after a high-fat meal (such as fish & chips, cheeseburger or French fries), it may take a little longer to start working. Viagra should not be taken more than once a day unless prescribed by your doctor.

Warnings/Precautions

It is always advisable to consult physician before starting the intake of Viagra. In case you have the history of an heart attack, stroke, or life-threatening irregular heartbeats within the last six months; or have heart failure in the past; coronary artery disease; angina; high or low blood pressure; liver problems; kidney problems; blood problems, including sickle cell anemia or leukemia; a bleeding disorder; stomach ulcer; retinitis pigmentosa (an inherited condition of the eye); physical deformity of the penis such as Peyronie’s disease; or a condition that could lead to prolonged and painful erections, such as a tumor of the bone marrow, sickle cell anemia, or leukemia; or you are taking any other medicine containing nitrates your blood pressure could suddenly drop to an unsafe level and can risk your life. All these medical conditions and also allergy to sildenafile or any of its ingredients can lead to disastrous results. So it is always advisable to consult your doctor for adjusting the dosages after monitoring the treatments listed above. Viagra Las Vegas

Viagra is not approved or recommended for use in women. Therefore, women should not take Viagra under any circumstances. It also not recommended for men older than 65 years unless they tolerate it in small doses for those who are sensitive to the effects of Viagra.

Missed Dose

Viagra can be taken as and when needed and there is no concept of missed dosage.

Possible Side Effects of Viagra

Every medicine has some or the other side effect and so does Viagra. It depends on individual to individual and is usually mild to moderate and don’t last longer than a few hours. Mostly these side effects are evident with high intakes of Viagra. The most common side effects of Viagra are headache, nausea, flushing of the face, and upset stomach. Also there can be some temporary changes in color vision (such as trouble telling the difference between blue and green objects or having a blue color tinge to them), eyes becoming sensitive to light, or blurred vision.

But if you become dizzy or nauseated, or have pain, numbness, or tingling in your chest, arms, neck, or jaw during sexual activity, stop and call your doctor right away. You could be having a serious side effect of Viagra, or if you have sudden vision loss or have any of these signs of allergic reactions like hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat seek emergency medical help immediately. It is also advisable to stop using Viagra and call your doctor immediately if you have any of these serious problems like – chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, general ill feeling; irregular heartbeat; swelling in your hands, ankles, or feet; shortness of breath and vision changes.

Keno in Modern America

Keno in history was a game that was played nearby pony dashing. At the point when the administration chose to begin taking the returns of pony dashing the club took out the pony hustling and just called the game keno. This was played fundamentally in the territory of Nevada and up until 1989 the most extreme an individual could dominate in the match was $50,000. After some time this has changed and now keno big stakes are extremely high.

 

In present day America, p บาคาร่า laying keno isn’t just held to playing in a gambling club any longer. It is currently being played online at a higher rate than it is at the gambling clubs. There are additionally various assortments of the game that you can play just as programming that you can download to play the game only for recreational purposes.

 

For the games that are not played online you can discover them being played every day in certain states and week after week in others. Victors know their standings as the outcomes are constantly posted in a neighborhood paper, just as they are reported by means of other media, for example, radio and TV. For internet games or games played in gambling clubs you can without much of a stretch see the outcomes close to the game wrapping up.

 

Similarly likewise with the customary lottery part of the returns from this keno lotto games are utilized for subsidizing municipal undertakings. It is utilized for altruistic purposes just as for military subsidizing. So when you play keno you can be sure that a piece of your cash is setting off to a decent motivation.

 

Most loved lottery numbers are a Waste Of Time. Snap Here If you need to know the genuine truth about Winning the lottery. Find the specific framework that beat the lottery multiple times in succession.

Guest Blogging: Ways to Increase Blog Traffic

The tough avenue to advertising achievement became surely, you get what you pay for. Not anymore.

Sure, conventional “paid” media-for instance radio and TV advertisements, print advertisements, and outside billboards nevertheless command their own impact.

However, today groups can take advantage of diverse new forms of media which have developed overtime. Block Chen

These opportunity types of media permit greater targeted audience and prosperous interactions; and due to the widening complexity of client desires, the efforts to deal with them implies entrepreneurs haven’t any desire but to sign up for in.

A proper example is the McDonald’s restaurants in Japan: the quick food chain has employed the use of guest blogging platforms and different social media to promote its merchandise via leveraging its significant fan base to talk approximately its meals.

And there lies the biggest assignment to increase weblog visitors: as an instance you’ll need to cope with concerns along with; what ought to be on your blog, how do you entice target market (with already masses of content material out there) to awareness on your weblog?

Today, we are able to outline effective strategies that entice new readers to your blog.

Getting new readers thru visitor blogging

Link building: of direction “hyperlink constructing” is almost now a cliché because of its large use as a advertising tactic.

But for visitor blogging functions, essentially it has essential blessings – the primary, is to enhance your rankings in search results and lastly, introduce customers or readers of other web sites/blogs to your blog.

Best practices in hyperlink building include:

1. Posting remarks in other blogs and public boards: to help you get richer and pretty focused audience, posting “comments” in public boards and different blogs may be a efficient way to increase weblog site visitors into your visitor blogging platform.

But contribution to network sites/forums calls for a variety of endurance.

Impolite or careless posting can result in account suspension or worse – (vocally or silently) categorised as a spammer, consequently turn out to be adverse your brand credibility.

The secret’s to be decent and sincere in your contribution.

2. Social Bookmarks – instead of having your content material posted in its entirety, those social bookmarking web sites surely posts hyperlinks for your content and that they have validated extra time to boom blog visitors.

Although a few websites like Digg and StumbleUpon are simplest for pinnacle member postings, but your range may additionally vary. Other bookmarks encompass; Technorati, Alltop, Bloglines, Netvibes and plenty of others.

Build relationships within the whole weblog sphere.

As a visitor blogger you ought to remember the fact that you aren’t the best professional inside the industry. Strive to connect to different bloggers.

When there is an awesome dating with other bloggers you don’t handiest get to proportion thoughts and readership, however you can additionally alternate hyperlinks for search engine marketing purposes.

Get involved social media.

Today, evaluations from social media sites are used to measure websites/weblog posts in seek consequences. If a weblog publish gets fantastic evaluation from a social web site the benefit is typically advanced compared to a link.

Successful bloggers are very much concerned inside the social media. Social media can be used to build credibility, enhance cognizance, toughen professional relationships, and sooner or later growth weblog site visitors.

B2B Blogging: Avoid the Mistake 9 Out of 10 Marketing Professionals Make

According to HubSpot, 78% of Internet users do product research online. And 7% of businesses have acquired a customer through blogging. Marketing professionals agree that inbound marketing is here to stay and that it’s the wave of the future.

However, marketers’ actions match neither their beliefs nor the data. Instead, B2B marketers have left a competitive advantage unexploited. It’s a blind spot.

Here it is.

Only 7% of brands “listen” via blogs.

It’s an understatement to say that blogging remains a vastly under-utilized resource.

Dominate Your B2B Market with Blogging

Buyers have changed their buying habits, researching products and services when and where they want. This is where inbound marketing, and blogging come in.

Unlike push marketing – inbound marketing doesn’t interrupt you. Seth Godin calls this permission marketing. It’s marketing that isn’t intrusive. Instead, information or content marketing is there when you need it – providing you with the information you’re searching for.

Inbound marketing and social media take many forms. But – according to a 2010 BtoB survey and the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), “Blogs are considered the most effective social network for B2B prospecting”.

Bottom line: Effective blogging can put you in the catbird’s seat.

Blogs work well in the B2B space and are uniquely suited to embracing prospects and customers alike. As you’re aware, B2B purchase decisions don’t happen quickly because they involve many stakeholders. Block chain web service

Consequently, there’s a demand for different information for different audiences. Blogs cater to that demand. And blogs engage and build connections with prospects. They open the door for meaningful interaction with the prospect by providing relevant information.

In addition, blogs’ built-in two-way communication helps solidify emerging relationships. In B2B, building relationships is vitally important.

With two-way communication, buyers get to ask what they want. Therefore, they get the information they need. That feedback mechanism gives the customer a voice. And that further builds trust and credibility.

But only 7% of marketers use that feedback to generate meaningful content. Imagine the competitive edge you could gain by with company blog.

Put the Power of Blogging to Work for You

The power of blogging lies in its ability to connect directly with the prospect. Your message won’t just be specific – it’ll be ultra-specific. You can have a conversation, develop a relationship, and mitigate or prevent a problem – in real-time

A Guide To Millionaire Online Casino

On the off chance that you love to play online openings and gambling club games, at that point you might be intrigued to realize that Millionaire Casino is one of the most famous online gambling clubs in business today. There are such a significant number of motivation to begin playing there: big stakes, mind boggling club games and a protected and secure condition. They offer probably the best rewards for new players alongside nonstop client care and a wide assortment of store and withdrawal choices.

 

With their high online table c  bandar onlineutoff points you’ll have the option to play bigger hands and win significantly greater bonanzas. Beginning today truly couldn’t be any simpler – simply follow the three stages underneath and you’ll be headed to hitting the following big stake!

 

Stage 1 – Download the gambling club. 

 

Simply download their free gambling club programming or play in a split second at Millionaire Casino’s glimmer gambling club. You’ll in a flash approach in excess of 100 club games including Video Poker, Blackjack, Slots, Roulette and Craps. At this moment Millionaire Casino is offering new players extraordinary compared to other rewards that you’ll discover anyplace; Just make your first store and they’ll coordinate it by 100% up to $5,000!

 

Stage 2 – Install the product. 

 

Once the download has finished, double tap the symbol on your PC and feel free to introduce the product. At the point when the establishment is finished the club will dispatch and you will have the option to feel free to make your new record.

 

At the point when you have made your new Millionaire Casino account you will consequently be selected into their phenomenal VIP Plan! Their VIP Plan is basic and works this way – the more that you play the more rewards you’ll win. As you climb the levels, you’ll acquire greater rewards and shockingly better store rewards.

 

Stage 3 – Start winning! 

 

Sit back, have a mixed drink (or two), and beginning getting a charge out of the most compensating on the web club understanding. Regardless of Whether you incline toward online openings or table games, there are huge amounts of games for you to browse. Bounce into any of their fun and energizing competitions and you’ll rapidly be en route to striking it rich!

4 Reasons Why You Should Hire a SEO Company

Knowing if the search engine optimisation company you choose is doing a good job isn’t always as easy as it seems.

Many poor performing companies use “smoke and mirrors” techniques to try and baffle their customers to make it appear they are doing a lot, when in reality, they are doing very little. On the other hand, many great search engine optimisation companies perform fantastically, but their honesty, openness and their knowledge of what is actually achievable makes their clients think that they aren’t as good as others. After all, would you prefer just “promises of results” or would you prefer “actual provided results”?

So, how can you identify what sort of company the search engine placement company you have selected is? Well, you can look at Google’s recommendation on ‘What’s an SEO?’ to help you tell the “promisers” from the “providers”:

Did your SEO company send you an unsolicited email?

Most SEO companies will not send you spam, but be careful not to confuse this with the genuine marketing that genuine companies send out. View all unsolicited emails with scepticism, and check out the company thoroughly before you buy. Just because they claim to be able to do something doesn’t always mean they can! รับทำ seo

Did your SEO company guarantee you a number 1 position on Google?

Or on any other search engine for that matter. The search engines are the only ones who can decide which site to put in the coveted top spot for any given search, so SEO companies simply cannot guarantee this. However this must not be confused with SEO’s who give more general guarantees i.e. Guaranteed listings, or a guaranteed top 10 position, for 1 of a number of terms. Also remember that these sort of guarantees can be made for pay per click listings, and paid inclusion directories. Some companies also offer money back guarantees, and a show of good faith. Again you must decide if you feel these guarantees are reasonable and sound, or if they seem too good to be true.

Did your SEO company explain clearly what they were going to do.

Few companies will explain everything to their clients, partly because they don’t want to confuse people and, especially with SEO, because most companies have had people milk them for information only to set up a rival company elsewhere, and just as you wouldn’t expect your hairdresser to teach you how to cut your own hair, you shouldn’t expect your SEO company to teach you how to optimise your own site, however, any company should be able to give you examples of the work they are carrying out, and give you broad descriptions of what they are doing. If your SEO company refuses to give you any information, be wary.

Did you have to have a link from your site to your SEO company?

Many reputable companies will add a link from your site to theirs, however this shouldn’t be a condition of service, unless this condition has been made clear to you prior to any work being carried out. and they should be willing to remove any such links if you ask. This does not apply to areas such as free hosting, or web design where often this is a condition of service.

Be sure to understand where the money goes.

Firstly be sure to make sure you understand weather you are paying a company for natural listings, or weather they offering you a pay per click campaign. In most cases the money paid to an SEO provider is paying for the time factor involved in optimising a website, however all SEO companies should be willing to explain where you money is going, and how much time they are putting in for that sum. You must bare in mind that there are genuine costs associated with natural optimisation.

Can your SEO company provide verifiable testimonials and case studies?

And can you contact the people who wrote them. Anyone can make up a testimonial, so do your seo company have email or web addresses on their testimonials & case studies? If not, can they give you the email address of a customer who will be willing to talk to you. Be wary of any company who does not have this transparency.

Most importantly

Are you happy with the way that your SEO company have performed. At the end of the day, if you think that they are doing a good job, and you would recommend them to other companies, friends, or family, then chances are that your company are doing well. If you are not happy with the way they have performed, before you decide that they are no good, approach them first, and get an explanation, if they can provide you with a satisfactory answer, then they are probably still an OK company, if they can’t then you may have to go elsewhere. Have a look at our top rating SEO companies, to find the right one for you.

What are the most common abuses a website owner is likely to encounter?

One common scam is the creation of “shadow” domains that funnel users to a site by using deceptive redirects. These shadow domains often will be owned by the SEO who claims to be working on a client’s behalf. However, if the relationship sours, the SEO may point the domain to a different site, or even to a competitor’s domain. If that happens, the client has paid to develop a competing site owned entirely by the SEO.

Another illicit practice is to place “doorway” pages loaded with keywords on the client’s site somewhere. The SEO promises this will make the page more relevant for more queries. This is inherently false since individual pages are rarely relevant for a wide range of keywords. More insidious, however, is that these doorway pages often contain hidden links to the SEO’s other clients as well. Such doorway pages drain away the link popularity of a site and route it to the SEO and its other clients, which may include sites with unsavoury or illegal content.

How To Rent A Casinos Without Spending An Arm And A Leg

A Period of Adjustment

Oops! That giant hissing sound is the gaming balloon that had been growing over the years, slowly losing air. But, it has not been a tide that lowered all ships however, as some emerging and expanding gaming jurisdictions showed strong growth in 2008. Live22

Overall, the commercial and racetrack casino sectors (excluding Indian gaming), experienced a 3.5 percent decline in gaming revenues for 2008, generating a total of $36.2 billion, down some $800 million from 2007. It was the Racino sector that has tempered this drop, as they showed a gain of almost $1 billion in 2008, thereby bringing the Commercial sector market decline to $1.8 billion, or 6.7 percent. Nevada was the biggest loser in 2008, dropping almost $1.3 billion, more than half of which stemmed from the Las Vegas Strip segment.

Hunkering Down

For the most part, casino operators were caught relatively flat-footed by the extent of the 2008 revenue downturn, as it was not until the third and fourth quarters when it really nosedived. Riding the crest of year over year market growth across the country and the availability of ample credit and equity funds, new construction and expansion proliferated in recent years. Today, faced with the realities of declining, or at best stagnant demand, many of these projects are now considered over-leveraged and/or over-sized. As a result many gaming companies are attempting to renegotiate their debt – made more difficult by lower valuations – while also paring down operational costs. The latter has become a very problematic conundrum when dealing with the competition, especially in those jurisdictions that are now vying for market shares with new emerging casino projects in neighboring areas. A topic we discuss more fully in the State by State analysis section of this publication.

As a result of these conditions the gaming industry landscape is now strewn with impending fatalities. Among the more notable troubled firms are Station Casinos, Empire Resorts, Harrah’s Entertainment, Greektown Holdings, Legends Gaming, Tropicana Entertainment, Herbst Gaming; and the list grows each week.

“How long will these economic conditions persist, and are we at the bottom yet?” are questions no one appears to be answering yet. What is clear however is that most gaming jurisdictions will have to learn how to deal with a smaller pie.

Note:
This analysis includes only gaming revenues of licensed casinos and pari-mutuel outlets that offer casino games, and not Indian gaming operations, card rooms, or small non-casino type slot locations. The whole article, including revenue tables is available on our web page.

Input/Output Model

A key aspect that seems to have arisen from the ashes of this current trend is that many casino projects were just too large to support themselves. The input, in terms of investment dollars, was not proportional to the output, in terms of net profit after debt service, compared to previously achieved results. More and/or bigger is not always better. Seeing the rise in non-gaming revenue at the Las Vegas Strip resorts, gave impetus to the development of more comprehensive amenities in many other jurisdictions. The flaw in this strategy however is that the costs associated with widening market penetration and occasioned-use, are significantly higher than those incurred to attract the base market.